Gemstones – An Introduction

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Gemstones have always interested human beings from time in memorial. In the past, they were relegated to the rich and the elites in the society. They were featured in their cutlery, household assets and jewelry among other valuables. They have been passed over the years in various family lineages. Today, they still attract the same attention and are pricey. We are all mesmerized by their   unique  colors and shapes. They feature distinct mineralogy characteristics. They can fall upon various categories depending on color, cut, clarity and rarity upon other determinant factors.

What Characterizes Gems?

The stones can be categorized depending on several factors. However, typically they are grouped based on these factors;

Chemical Composition

A gemstone can comprise of one pure element or it can be a product of a mixture of several mineral compounds. Most gems contain both oxides and silicates which give them a characteristic color.

The structure of the crystal

Precious stones can be either a single crystal, a collection of massive microscopic crystals such as diamond or an amorphous compound. The crystallized stones can take many forms such as hexagonal, cubic and tetragonal among other sophisticated shapes. These kind of stones require careful cutting to ensure that the shape of the crystals is maintained.

Optical features

The optical characteristics of many gemstones are derived from their crystal structure and chemical composition. Color is one of the main feature that define gems. Most of them exude stunning hues when light shines upon them. Some will even portray a mixture of colors making them very adorable. Precious stones are also classified depending on their refractive indices. The refractive capability will vary among various minerals. Clarity is a common term when classifying gems. Some minerals have  unique  inclusions which can be crystals of other elements, gas or liquid cavities. Such inclusions help in the identification of the stones.

Specific gravity

This is defined as the ratio of a density of a gemstone relative to that of water. Some minerals such as amber floats effortlessly on salty water. Others such as diamond will sink regardless of the weight of the crystal.

Durability (Hardness)

Not every gem is resistance to breakage. Some such as nephrite are a bit soft whereas diamond is the toughest of them all. All these characteristics among others such as the availability of the mineral helps in placing the gemstones either as precious or semi precious. The hardness of a crystal can be measured by Mohs hardness scale from 1- softest to 10-hardest.

Assessment of Quality of Gems

Four factors are considered while determining the quality of gems. Color is a crucial aspect when evaluating a colored mineral. There are three qualities of color namely hue, saturation and tone. Hue is the position of the mineral on the color wheel, it can be red, black, orange, blue and such like. However, there will be variations of a single hue position such a darker and a lighter green and so forth.

Another crucial consideration is clarity. This is gauged by assessing the presence of inclusions in the mineral. Some stones will have inclusions while others do not feature any impurities whatsoever. If the inclusions are strategically placed and are few, they can enhance the beauty of the stone.

Thirdly, cut is another important quality that dictates the value of a particular gemstone. The main factors that are checked include; shape, cutting style, symmetry and finish.

Lastly, it is the carat weight. This is an essential consideration for anybody who is dealing with gems. One gram is equivalent to five carats. The price of the stone increases with the increase in the metric weight in carats.

Horoscopes

Based on the above factors, a gemstone can be precious or semi precious. Precious stones are the hardest and are rare, whereas semi precious stones are typically soft and in abundance. However, there are some variations. For instance, opals and pearls are regarded as precious although they are soft, owing to their rarity. Precious gemstones have high price tag as compared to semi precious stones.

Also they are those gemstones which relate to horoscopes. They are widely used in gemstone horoscope reading. They are nine zodiac signs namely Aries, Gemini, Taurus, Leo, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio,Libra, Sagittarius and Capricorn. Each star indicates the position of sun at the time of birth. Some of the stones that are primary stones of astrology include diamond, sapphire,emerald and ruby. According to experts gemstones can help in counteracting the negative occurrences of ones life in future. Hence, they advise that one should wear a gemstone that represents their star.

For instance, those whose zodiac sign is Leo should sport Ruby or Citrine whereas those in Aries should wear Coral. For Taurus the individuals should wear diamond and those who their star is Gemini are supposed to wear emerald. Also, Cancer should wear pearls, Libra should go for diamond and Scorpio should wear obsidian or coral. Sagittarius should sport topaz and Capricorn individuals should wear blue sapphire. Although, each person is supposed to wear a particular gemstone, one can still combine two or more gemstones to accrue great therapeutic benefits. If a person like a particular crystal but it is not their birthstone, they can still get it nonetheless.

Buying gemstones is not a smooth ride but the above information can get you a real gemstone.

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Paper Wings Clothing – The Latest Trend in Kids Fashion

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All children are unique and they need kids clothing to fit their personality. If you are searching for the best clothing for your kids, come into the world of Paper Wings clothing. The Australian brand mixes past, present and future ideals for fashionable and creative children’s fashion design. Paper Wings clothing is influenced by eclectic fashion, traditional crafts, old-school design and vintage patterns, new fashion trends and contemporary style. From bold patterns and colors, stripes and artistic prints, they create beautiful outfits for babies and kids, for girls and boys.

Jason Gibaud and Michelle Fallon are the lead designers and owners of this unique kids designer clothing label. They find inspiration in their own children – Vevette, Esther and Kitty. When designing Paper Wings clothing and Little Wings fashion for kids, they decided to focus on what their kids would want to wear. That is why this brand is practical, comfortable and fun! This boutique kids clothing line celebrates the freedom of being children, dressing like children and feeling like children.

The essence of Paper Wings clothing comes from Jason and Michelle’s experience and success in costume design, film production and architecture/interior design. Jason and Michelle both have a professional background designing costumes for Moulin Rouge, Star Wars and Peter Pan. As a result, Paper Wings offers beautiful, casual wear for kids that looks like a work of art. Jason and Michelle develop all of their ideas for kids clothing in their design studio in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

Every piece of stylish clothing for kids is designed to be worn every day, over and over again. The clothes are long-lasting and popular with kids and their parents. All Paper Wings outfits are individually made and hand-finished to the last detail. Many cute outfits for girls feature adorable little touches like drawstrings, puff sleeves, bustles, ruffles and bright, zany prints. This popular brand of boutique kids clothing is committed to create premium clothing products with durable, natural fibers like 100% organic cotton.

In 2014, this boutique clothing brand partnered with graphic artist Katie Daisy to feature a collection of designs with shabby chic illustrations. Katie Daisy works primarily in watercolor and acrylic paint and mixed media. She find her inspiration in simple & sweet country pleasures. Katie grew up in rural Lindenwood, Illinois, which is true inspiration for her free-roaming, passion-filled life and a beautiful portfolio of her artwork. Katie Daisy became famous through her illustrations, inspirational quotes and artwork for sale on Etsy. Paper Wings clothing and Katie Daisy both stand for the freedom and joy. That’s why the partnership was an excellent choice for childrens clothing. The illustrations give a one-of-a-kind look to an already stylish brand of clothing and dresses for kids.

Be sure to check out Paper Wings Clothing on your next shopping trip for kids clothing online. You will find stylish outfits for kids ages up to 14 years (girls and boys) as well as cute baby clothes with sizes starting at newborn. This designer kids clothing collection offers t-shirts, dresses, leggings and skirts featuring simple designs and adorable motifs such as mermaids, fish, cats and horses. And guess what… there are swimsuits, too! Paper Wings clothing has beautiful boutique kids clothes fit for any occasion and everyday wear. You will love it forever!

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Pie, An Old Brown Horse by Kandy Kay Scarmuzzo, A Book Review

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The title is a little misleading. Pie may be an old brown horse now, but he was nothing of the sort during the story. Kandy brought that personable horse to life like he was almost one of us. As we all know, animals have feelings, thoughts and ways to communicate just like we do. Even though some, and maybe a lot of people, don’t think about this in a very in depth way, Kandy proves that to be our oversight and sadly our loss. Because as you read the story, the thoughts, and emotions of how Kandy presented these majestic animals is nothing short of enthralling, entertaining, and enlightening.

Sometimes you just had to laugh out loud, as Pie literally thought like an animal would at our crazy antics, and his simplistic and natural understanding of how life just is. We make it complicated, and they bring it back to basics and fun.

Reading about Pie and his story made you really wish you could have gotten to know him, even enjoyed some of the same events with him. To have known and spent time with him would have been a cherished privilege. Knowing the owners of Pie could teach all of us the meaning of unconditional love.

As you learn from this book, taking care of a horse or more, is not for the faint of heart. It is work, money, time, and emotion, but the rewards are so much greater than what is given, that the comparison is actually impossible. For those who do it and have done it, like the owners of Pie, they wouldn’t trade it for the world.

Pie calls the owner, keeper. His love, thankfulness, appreciation and admiration of keeper is obvious, and just as obvious is, it’s well deserved. I am sure the keeper is the author, and I am sure you will see, as I did, that the spirit of the keeper is nothing short of incredible. It is apparent that unconditional love is as central to her core as the automatic beating of her heart. People like this should be respected and emulated. Pie knew this and showed her and his charge, little one just how much love he had to give back.

This story should be read by everyone, and really should be a required reading in schools everywhere. It is not only enjoyable and entertaining; it is educational in more ways than you can imagine. Thanks for the privilege of reading and writing a review of your book Kandy. It was a great pleasure.

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Like to Golf? You Will Love a Personal Golf GPS

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Modern technology has changed the way we do many things in our lives. Now modern technology has come to the golf course. Of course there have been improvements in the materials that clubs are made of and certainly the attire has improved over time, but nothing that has come before can improve your game more than a personal golf GPS device.

These wonderful little machines can give you the advantages that the Pros have without all the work. Pros have the time to go out and walk a course and take measurements that help them to decide what clubs to use and how much force to use when striking the ball. Wouldn’t it be great if you could have those advantages too?

Now you can. A hand held personal golf GPS device uses satellite technology to give you accurate measurements not only for each and every hole on the course, but also relay to you the distance left to the green and the hole after you have hit the ball off the tee. It can also let you know how far you are from bunkers or water hazards.

Most personal golf GPS computers will also tell you what par is and keep track of your score for you. Its like having a professional caddy right in the palm of your hand.

Not all personal golf GPS devices are alike however. Some come preloaded with all the relevant information, including all the measurements for every hole on every golf course in the United States. Others you will need to access the devices website and download the information you need. Either way, having this information will allow you to completely change the way you play the game.

Your golf buddies will wonder at the vast improvement in your game. Whether or not you let them in on your little secret is entirely up to you, but be warned, if you tell them, they are likely to want to borrow yours. This will level the playing field and you may go back to losing a round or two.

So, if you like playing golf and you enjoy winning, the personal golf GPS may be the perfect golf accessory for you. It is now even possible to get this function programmed into some cell phones so you wont even have to worry about being weighed down by too many electronic devices. It could not be any easier to improve your golf game.

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Cactus Diet Plan

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Who wants to eat a cactus? Just about everyone in the world wants this particular cactus. You may not have heard about the Cactus diet but most people have heard about Hoodia.

The basis of the Cactus diet is a substance called Hoodia. Several diet pills on the market claim to contain the substance. Hoodia is the name of a rather ugly cactus that grows in the Kalahari region of Africa. The Bushmen that live there use the Hoodia cactus, specifically Hoodia Gordonii, to keep them from getting hungry on long hunting trips.

The native tribes eat the plant and can survive for days on little or nothing to eat while they search for food. The Hoodia cactus suppresses their desire to eat. It fools the brain into thinking that they are already full.

The discovery of this plant sent pharmaceutical companies after the secret to stopping the obesity epidemic. Taking Hoodia is supposed to suppress the appetite and therefore lead to weight loss. When hunger does start to kick in, Hoodia users can eat healthier foods to fuel the body.

Taking Hoodia and following an exercise plan leads to weight loss according to those who swear by the substance. Natural Hoodia has no side effects and can affect the appetite after the first pieces are eaten. Pharmaceutical companies are trying to synthesize Hoodia for market to the rest of the world.

The cactus diet plan is still not perfected. The Cactus diet involves taking supplements that contain Hoodia. There are many types of Hoodia and you may be buying a pill that claims to suppress the appetite but may not. The amount of Hoodia may not be enough to cause the same effects that the Bushmen experience from eating the actual plant. Since this plant has not been found outside of this desert-like region of Africa, to follow the Cactus diet plan, people have to rely on commercial pills that make boastful claims about their product having the same effects as the original Hoodia plant.

According to the Hoodia tale, the substance is hard to reproduce with the same efficiency. Those who buy products that contain Hoodia should beware. We all know what they say about something that seems too good to be true. Until further notice, watch what you eat and exercise regularly to lose weight. Set aside the gimmicks.

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Top Five Supplements for Bodybuilding

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When it comes to bodybuilding or building muscles in general, our body is often limited by our nutrition. And regardless of how hard we train, sometimes we just can’t make any progress as we are lacking important nutrients that help us achieve better results. Therefore, people turn to supplements.

Supplements are an amazing way to add valuable nutrients that help us build muscle, recover faster or train harder. They boost the results and push our limits, allowing us to make a significant progress with each training.

And despite the fact that we all have unique bodies and react differently to some supplements, there are 5 essential supplements that every bodybuilder needs.

Whey Protein

Whey protein is a fast-digesting milk protein that helps deliver essential amino acids to the skeletal muscle. It is a foundation for muscle gains and the most frequently used supplement.

Whey is quickly shuttled into the muscles where it exerts its strong anabolic effects. Therefore, it is often used as a pre-workout and post-workout meal to increase protein synthesis and improve muscle restoration and recovery. Whether your goal is to drop body fat or build lean mass, adding a whey protein can speed both the loss and the gain process.

It can help with:

Recovery – After the intense workout your body desperately looks for protein to repair itself. If taken immediately after the workout, whey helps trigger rapid muscle recovery and builds strong and lean muscles.

Appetite Suppressant – Whey protein shake can be even used as a meal replacement or a healthy snack that will increase body’s protein levels and reduce daily calorie intake.

Amino Acids – Whey protein contains essential amino acids needed for protein synthesis.

Recommended daily dosage: 20-30g

Creatine

Creatine is the second most used supplement and for a good reason – it is a naturally occurring substance that promotes increased muscle cell volume, lean body mass, post-workout recovery and increased muscle performance.

Naturally produces in liver, pancreas and kidneys, creatine is primarily found around skeletal muscle tissue (95%), where it is transformed into creatine phosphate from which the energy molecule ATP is produced.

Creatine increases energy and strength, allowing harder workouts and better performance, which cause muscles to become bigger and stronger.

The creatine level naturally found in our body is sufficient for ongoing cellular function and is definitely not enough to cause massive muscle growth. Therefore, people opt for creatine supplementation to reap its full benefits.

Recommended daily dosage: 5-10g

Branched Amino Acid (BCAA)

Branched-Chain Amino Acid, also known as BCAA, is another amazing supplement that bodybuilders use to improve their workout results. Protein consists of 20 amino acids, and only 3 of them are referred to as BCAAs: valine, isoleucine and leucine. They help regulate protein metabolism and stimulate protein synthesis.

BCAAs have a similar function as protein – they drive nutrients into the muscle tissue and help muscles recover faster. They also serve as an energy source during workouts, so taking BCAAs as a supplement can replace the nutrients lost during intense exercises. They also improve metabolic recovery and reduce pain caused by muscle fatigue.

Recommended daily dosage: 3-5 grams upon waking and 3-5 grams before and after the workout

Glutamine

Glutamine is the number one supplement for a speedy recovery and therefore essential for every serious bodybuilder. It slows down muscle-tissue breakdown during intensive workout which elevate endurance and improves strength. It allows bodybuilders to lift heavier weights for a longer period of time and train harder, which cause the production of greater lean muscles.

Glutamine also helps preserve the muscle tissue, which helps burn additional fat, while slowing down the muscle loss. It also improves the immune system by placing stress on the entire body instead of just the muscle and quickly restores the health of the muscle tissue, which ensures rapid recovery of the whole body.

Recommended daily dosage: 5 grams upon waking, 5 grams after the workout and 5 grams before bed

Beta-Alanine

Beta-Alanine (BA) is a naturally occurring amino acid that increase intramuscular levels of Carnosine by 60% in less than a month. During high-intensity workout the body accumulates large amounts of hydrogen, which cause our pH to drop and we become more acidic. This lactic acid can decrease muscle performance, cause severe fatigue and shut down the nerve drive (causing muscle failure).

By taking Beta-Alanine supplements, bodybuilders maintain an increased level of Carnosine and delay the accumulation of hydrogen and all its side effects. BA also elevates endurance, delays fatigue, improves force output and repeated sprint ability and works great with creatine.

Recommended daily dosage: 2-6 grams per day, taken in smaller doses throughout the day

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Finding Romance Books To Read Online – Tips and Tricks To Know Before You Download Novels On Love

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There’s nothing like being immersed in a good novel on love and romance. Many individuals download romance books to read online and it is a frequent habit, made possible by advancements in computing software and the internet. A book you read on your computer is called an eBook, but they also go by other names, such as an electronic book and a digital book.

Whether or not you are used to downloading romance novels online, the following paragraphs will go into detail with some tips and tricks to know, if you’re going to satisfy your need for romance books to read online. We will also discuss the types of places where you can get your hands on some quality romance novels, as well as some precautionary measures you should take.

The internet is a somewhat safer place to do browsing and downloads compared to a few years ago. Even with downloading romance novels to read online, that does not mean you should not be vigilant either. There are rogue websites and files on the internet that are programmed to compromise your privacy and the security of your personal computer. Having some security program(s) on your computer to combat viruses, malware, spyware and rootkits, is a step you should take before doing any extensive browsing and downloading online.

Websites can contain code and romance eBook files may have been tampered with, to cause damage to your computer. While the chances of a downloaded romance eBook, causing an infection on your personal computer is minimal, it can happen, so don’t turn a blind eye with regards to having a reputable security program that is regularly updated (to combat new threats) on your computer. This should provide the best experience possible when you download romance stories online.

Finding romance books to read online can be a chore, if you are looking for a database containing a multitude of romantic novels. The easiest databases you will find are shopping sites, as they will have a multitude of romance books for sale. These can be tangible books, which are shipped to your home or downloadable romance eBooks, which are delivered to your computer instantly upon completion of the transaction.

If you’re on a budget you will find that many romance books are affordable. There are certain places that may allow free romance eBook downloads, but the quality and content of these books are often questionable and stripped. For example, you may freely download a romance novel to read online, only to find out that you were only given the first couple of pages. These are usually samples and if you like what you read so far, you have to pay for the rest of the book.

What has been emerging lately is a subscription based model. Websites offering a service where you subscribe and afterwards, you are able to download all the romance books to read online that you want. Some of these are “pay by the month” subscriptions, but I have seen one that only asks for a small one time payment for a lifetime membership, and what is offered is surprisingly good. You’re basically given unlimited access to a huge library of eBooks.

Because of the advancements in technology, you aren’t just limited to reading love and romance eBooks on your computer. There are many other devices that allow you to read digital books. Some of these include, the iPad, Kindle and Nook. The devices that were primarily made for reading eBooks are called eReaders.

The main advantage to having an eReading device, is that they are portable and they can store a multitude of digital books, as opposed to having to tote all the books that you want to read wherever you go. These portable eReaders usually have a very long battery life, before you have to charge them again. Some eReaders have improved lighting features, in case you are going to read in a poorly lit area.

Now that we have some information on downloading romance and love stories, are you up for getting some steamy romance novels to read online?

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TAB Sportsbet

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TAB Sportsbet is truly your one stop shop for all your gambling and betting needs. It is one of the biggest limited companies in Australia and was officially owned by the Australian government, but over the 1990s they were privatised.

Recent estimates total $9 billion in wagered money every year through TAB Sportsbet.

Main Features of TAB Sportsbet

The details below is useful should you be in a position where you would like to open up an account with a sports betting agency, but are unsure as to who. The details below are some of the key points that I think is necessary when evaluating whether you would like to sign up to TAB Sportsbet.

  • They are a bookmaker type agency
  • There is currently licenses in both Victoria and New South Wales – both states in Australia
  • You can bet on sports, racing, and events such as political elections
  • You can bet live on the phone
  • There is a minimum bet of $1 via the Internet
  • There are a number of ways to deposit money into your account such as through Credit card, in person at a TAB retail outlet, Cheque, BPAY, Bank transfer, Australia Post
  • They accept currencies from the following countries; Australia, Europe, Hong Kong, Japan and the United States of America

More about TAB Sportsbet

Because the platform and the name is so widely trusted and accepted, this bookmaker has a lot of people wagering money. They have recently released an iPhone application through which punters can place their bets. I personally use this quite frequently and I really like how simple it is to understand, and how quick it is to place bets.

Onto their website, it’s quite simple and professional with everything clearly laid out so there is not too much confusion around – like there can be on some of their competitor websites. I personality like their video tutorials that walk you through how to place your first bets, and some more juicy stuff that you should know about their site and about betting in general.

These guys cover nearly all the major events in the world of sports, and a little beyond. Because horse racing is one of Australia’s biggest passions, the TAB Sportsbet put an emphasis on this type of betting.

Interesting the TAB had a massive dispute with Betfair in the mid 2000s – they were basically attempting to deny the company from getting a license in Australia. However the Tasmanian government granted access to a license in 2005.

TAB Sportsbet Promotional Codes

There are constantly new and exciting promotional codes available from the link below. These links will take you straight across to the Betwiser website. TAB Sportsbet are always trying to get new players to sign up and they really show this by the generosity of their promotions.

If you are planning on becoming a customer, I would strongly recommend only doing it when you have a promotional code so that you can maximise your value.

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